Vehicular Adhoc Networks- Future & Challenges

These days, people spend a significant amount of their time in vehicles. In order to make that time more secure, efficient, pleasant, pollution-free, and economical, smart vehicles based on VANETs have emerged. In this context, higher safety can be provided by exchanging critical events reliably. Improved efficiency is achieved by reducing traffic jams and pollution and making travel time more predictable. Furthermore, VANETs can be connected to the Internet to make the journey more entertaining by offering files to download and access to social networks. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been studied intensively due to their wide variety of applications and services, such as passenger safety, enhanced traffic efficiency, and infotainment. With the evolution of technology and sudden growth in the number of smart vehicles, traditional VANETs face several technical challenges in deployment and management due to less flexibility, scalability, poor connectivity, and inadequate intelligence.

Some of the key challenges of the future VANETs are as follows:

  • Intermittent connectivity: the control and management of network connection among vehicles and infrastructure is a key challenge. The intermittent connections due to the high mobility of vehicles or high packet loss in vehicular networks must be avoided.
  • High mobility and location awareness: future VANETs require high mobility and location awareness of the vehicles participating in communication. Each vehicle should have the correct position of other vehicles
  • Heterogeneous vehicle management: in the future, there will be a large number of heterogeneous smart vehicles. The management of heterogeneous vehicles and their sporadic connections is another challenge of future VANETs.
  • Security: there is always a risk to the privacy of user’s data content and location. The vehicles communicating within the infrastructure should allow users to decide what information should be exchanged and what information should be kept private. 
  • Support of network intelligence: one of the challenges of future VANETs is that it needs to support network intelligence. In future VANETs, there will be a large number of sensors installed in vehicles, and the edge cloud collects and preprocesses the collected data before sharing them with other parts of the network

Considering these challenges, the major requirements of future VANETs can be summarized as follows:

  • Low latency and real-time application: low latency is the fundamental requirement in future VANETs regarding real-time applications. Future VANETs should support real-time applications, like safety messages with very low latency
  • High bandwidth: in future, infotainment and comfort applications such as high quality video streaming will be in high demand. In addition, traffic applications such as 3D maps and navigation systems require frequent automatic updates
  • Connectivity: to meet the high communication requirements, future VANETs necessitate seamless connectivity between connected vehicles. Connected and driverless vehicles should maintain continuous and highly reliable communication between vehicles and fog devices. 

By: Ms. Nisha Wadhawan

Assistant  Professor – IT Department of Management Studies

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